Studies have ranged from site-specific determinations of soil organic matter accumulation e. Much recent interest has focused on changes in wetland carbon reservoirs during historical times—primarily human induced. Armentano and Menges estimate changes in carbon flux and loss of carbon storage capacity for temperate zone organic soils due to wetland drainage and similar disturbances. They found that the wetlands in some regions of the world e. Level 1: Sediment Traps Equipment needed. Field sediment traps.
This is a highly sophisticated sampling technique, necessarily so because of the sensitivity of the data. Accumulation rates are often very low, so high precision is a must. See Mudroch and MacKnight for sampling methodology and Leonard et al.
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Large sediment traps might be necessary in some instances as in the nearshore or lake environments. See Honjo and Doherty for an example. Seasonal if possible, and during events. Will need a high level of expertise for deploying sediment traps and retrieving and analyzing the data. Moderate for cost of traps and field work. Level 2: Cryogenic Coring. Cryogenic coring. The bottle has liquid nitrogen used to freeze the marsh substrate thus making it possible to retrieve a core sample. US Geological Survey photo. Cryogenic coring uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the marsh substrate thus making it possible to retrieve a core sample Fig.
It is especially advantageous in that, once frozen, the soil does not compact, so accumulation rate data obtained is much more precise than conventional coring techniques. See Knaus , Knaus and Cahoon , or Cahoon et al. Cryogenic coring is a highly specialized undertaking. Yearly at the most.
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Highly detailed sampling techniques means this is best left to the experts. Level 3: Determination of Historical Rates Equipment needed. To investigate historical rates of wetland accretion means having to bring in the third and fourth dimensions. Highly precise spatial data are needed, and absolute dating methods must be employed.
This is necessarily equipment and labor intensive. Each site to be studied will be covered with several vibracore transects extending from the upland across the transition zone into the marsh. Vibracores after the methods of Lanesky et al.
The hand-auger will be used to fill in any gaps in resolution not provided by the vibracores e. The vibracore tops will be surveyed in using differential GPS providing the detail necessary to examine the elevation of the transgressed upland surface in the cores. This kind of detail is important for determining accurately the slope of this surface and the rate of transgression of the marsh edge. The boundary between the submerged upland and the base of the salt marsh must be identified and the basal marsh sediments this is the leading edge of the transgressing marsh sampled for radiocarbon dating.
Depending on available funds, the more radiocarbon dates the better. A hand-auger core should also be recovered at each vibracore location for possible Cs and Pb sequences to determine if accretion rates vary across the transition zone and from site to site. The modern surface sediments in each site should be sampled and analyzed using standard sedimentological techniques—grain size analysis by settling tube Theide et al.
These characteristics can then be mapped as a sediment facies map. These maps will provide the baseline data set for the modern biogeological relationships at each site. Similar procedures should be carried out for the sediments at 10 cm intervals in the vibracores in order to determine if the sedimentology, vegetation, or the relationships between the two have changed during marsh transgression.
Analysis of the marsh flora in the cores must be carried out using, for example, the methods of Allen It is important to determine whether these coastal marshes are transgressing as stable vegetational communities or whether they are changing as they migrate. The results of such a study can include profi les, topographic contour maps, sediment isopach maps, and sediment facies maps. Ultimately, a series of maps for each study area can be produced predicting areas of new wetland formation and floral succession during the next 50, , , and years, assuming minimum, moderate, and maximum sea-level rise scenarios.
Predictions will be based on the determined rate of wetland transgression at each transect adjusted for any changes in the bordering upland slope or environment. Notations on the maps will indicate areas where human activity may interfere with or prevent the formation of new wetland. This is the ultimate in long-term management of the system. Probably will be done once only.natladerra.tk
Monitoring Coastal Geologic Features and Processes (U.S. National Park Service)
Exceedingly complex. Very expensive. Only four barrier islands are accessible by car Tybee, St. Simons, Sea Island, and Jekyll , and are heavily developed. A two-part approach to evaluating coastal hazards was developed to aid coastal planning and management decisions for Cumberland Island National Seashore Barrett et al. The goal was to provide guidelines for environmental assessment of a shoreline and to serve as an evaluative tool for examining natural hazard risk, to aid in developing management strategies.
The first component of the plan is a field-based program of observations and documentation. This involves 1 a simple geoindicators checklist of several hazards-related parameters including descriptions of the general setting, shoreline state, nearshore setting, and onshore setting; 2 beach profiling using a simple stake and horizon method; 3 a set of photographs to document the setting; and 4 recording site locations using a handheld GPS unit. The second component of the plan is a computer-assisted analysis utilizing remote sensing and GIS technology.
Monitoring sites dots along the Cumberland Island, Georgia, shore.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)
Sites were selected based on input of National Park Service personnel, previous studies, and field observations. Phase One: Field Documentation Field sites were selected based on field inspection, anecdotal evidence of interesting erosion patterns, or any number of reasons suggesting that the site is deemed worthy of monitoring.
For each selected field sites Fig. Stakeholders were encouraged to visit each site at least once a year, or more frequently in the case of passage of a large storm.
Shoreline change analysis from T-sheets and aerial photography was done Fig. See also Jackson , Jackson et al. Historical beach profiles were not available, but should be acquired if possible. Shoreline change was calculated using end point rate method. Shoreline changes of the estuarine shoreline of Cumberland Island Jackson et al. Historical shoreline positions, Cumberland Island, Georgia. From Jackson Conclusions Field inspections of several sites on Cumberland Island National Seashore showed that, at least for the sites visited, there are no major coastal hazards present on this undeveloped island.
Shoreline change analysis from air photos confirmed this observation. A flow chart was developed to provide an easy to follow guide to initiating and continuing the proposed coastal evaluation technique Fig. The beauty of this approach is that the field observation component is very inexpensive and can still provide enough information on which to base management decisions. The digital component is not strictly necessary, but can be used to complement the field observations if and when resources are available. A byproduct of such a study is that the amount of data generated must be kept organized and accessible.
As such, creating and managing a database and Web site is critical. Historical changes in the estuarine shoreline of Cumberland Island, Georgia. From Jackson et al.