CITIES, NATIONS AND EMPIRES - A Study Guide in Bible Symbolism

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His ministry of expository preaching is unparalleled in its breadth and influence.

In more than five decades of ministry from the same pulpit, he has preached verse by verse through the entire New Testament and several key sections of the Old Testament. Thomas Nelson. Features include: page concordance, including people and places More than 20, study notes, charts, maps, outlines, and articles from Dr.

Introduction to the Intertestamental Period. Chronology of the Intertestamental Period. The New Testament and Notes. The Character of Genuine Saving Faith. On his deathbed, Hattusili chose his grandson, Mursilli, as his heir. Unlike his grandfather, Mursilli seems to have conducted raids on other kingdoms solely for the loot to be gained and not to add their land and resources to his own kingdom.

The Edict of Telepinu records his reign:. When Mursilli was king in Hattusa, his sons, brothers, in-laws, family members, and troops were all united. He controlled the enemy land with force, took away their power, and made them the borders of the sea. He went to the city Aleppo, destroyed Aleppo, and took the deportees from Aleppo and its goods to Hattusa.

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Afterwards he went to Babylon and destroyed Babylon. He took the deportees from Babylon and its goods to Hattusa.


Zidanta stole up to Hantili and they committed an evil deed: they killed Mursilli and shed his blood. They conspired to assassinate Mursilli and take the throne, in which they were successful.

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Hantili then reigned as king for approximately 30 years c. Zidanta, having grown tired of watching Hantili enjoy the kingship while doing little else, assassinated him and murdered his heirs.

Symbolic vs. Literal Interpretation of the Bible

Zidanta then became king after Hantili and ruled for ten equally uneventful years, until he was assassinated by his son Ammuna. Ammuna ruled for 20 years BCE and, in that time, proved a worse king than his three predecessors. The vast kingdom which Hattusili had created fell apart as more and more regions rebelled against a central rule, and Ammuna did nothing to stop the insurgence or placate the territories in any way.

Ammuna died, apparently, of natural causes and was succeeded by a son of a lesser wife, Huzziya known as Huzziya I who assassinated the two eldest legitimate sons of Ammuna in order to take the throne. Huzziya reigned poorly for five years until he was deposed in BCE by a younger son or son-in-law of Ammuna named Telepinu who banished him from the kingdom he was later murdered.

Telepinu did his best to restore the kingdom to its former glory but, by this point, there was little to be done. He is most famous for The Edict of Telepinu, which records the history and past glory of the Hittites and laments the sad state the kingdom has come to in his time. The actual day-to-day life and culture of the Hittites is equally mysterious, as the inscriptions which have been deciphered deal mainly with the kings and their campaigns.

It is known that the Hittites wrote using Akkadian script but in their own Indo-European language which is what made deciphering the tablets so difficult in that scholars of Akkadian could read the words but could not understand them and used cylinder seals to sign documents and mark property as people did throughout Mesopotamia , suggesting to some scholars a clear link between the two cultures. Those details of Hittite life and culture which have come to light seem to be slight variations on that of the Hatti.

The precise nature of the relationship between the two peoples remains unclear, however, due to a lack of primary sources and, as mentioned, the focus of the documents on the activities of the rulers rather than the story of the people. The historian Erdal Yavuz writes:. The Hittite king Suppiluliuma dominated the history of the Middle East during the 14th century BC, although the dates of his reign are in question. He was originally thought to have ascended the throne about and to have reigned for roughly four decades. During the early years of his reign, Suppiluliuma consolidated the Hittite homeland and improved the defenses of Hattusa.

The greatly extended city walls were built, enclosing an area of more than hectares. Suppiluliuma I had recently conquered the region of Syria and made clear his support for a rival to the throne of Mitanni; Egypt, fearing the strength of the Hittite army, then withdrew their backing of Tushratta. Under the reign of Akhenaten, Suppiluliuma I continued to expand his empire by taking kingdoms and vassal states from Egypt, such as Byblos, with little effort.

When Tutankhamun died suddenly in BCE, his widow-queen Ankhsenamun wrote to Suppiluliuma I asking him to send her one of his sons to marry, as she could not bear to marry a servant, could not rule alone, and had no sons to assume the throne. This was an unprecedented request from a queen of Egypt and, after making sure the message was legitimate, Suppiluliuma I sent his son Zananza to Egypt to marry her and become pharaoh.

Zananza never reached the borders of Egypt, however, as he was murdered most likely by the Egyptian general Horemheb or the vizier Ay in order to prevent a foreigner from ruling in Egypt. Suppiluliuma I died in the plague which spread across the region in BCE. It is thought that the Egyptian captives he brought back as slaves from his conquests carried the plague with them to Hattusa. Arnuwanda II had been personally groomed for the throne by Suppiluliuma I, whereas Mursilli II had little experience and was regarded as no more than a child.

None of the kings of the surrounding regions took the young monarch at all seriously when he ascended to the throne in BCE but, as they would soon find, this was a mistake. Mursilli II had learned more from his father than anyone thought and quickly set about conquering tribes which had long proved a problem such as the Kaska. He first secured the borders of the Hittite Empire and then expanded them.

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At this time the Assyrians were growing in power and, in BCE, challenged the sovereignty of the Hittites for control of the region formerly belonging to the Mitanni. At the Battle of Nihriya, in c. Yavuz writes:. The last king of the Hittite Empire was Suppiluliuma II, famous for his part in the first naval battle in recorded history in BCE, in which the Hittite fleet was victorious over the Cypriots. A series of military actions, which came to be known as the Laodicean War, resulted.

Ptolemy II died soon after Laodice killed his daughter, Berenice.

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He attacked the king of the North and captured the Syrian capital of Antioch. Daniel Daniel 10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.

One of these sons, Seleucus III , reigned for only three years. His military activity was relatively minor. He died by poisoning. After his victory Ptolemy turned to a life of debauchery during which he slaughtered tens of thousands of Jews in Egypt verse Daniel Daniel 13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. Ptolemy IV had died in The Egyptian provinces were in turmoil because of the wretched rule of Ptolemy IV.

Many of the people—including Jews sympathetic to the king of the North—joined with Antiochus against the king of the South. Scopus also rebuffed the forces of Antiochus during the winter of The king of the North responded with another invasion. Daniel Daniel He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.

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He gave his daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy V in marriage. Antiochus believed she would act in his favor and betray the interests of her husband. Daniel Daniel 18 After this shall he turn his face to the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn on him. Rome responded by attacking Antiochus and inflicting defeat on his forces. Antiochus returned in disgrace to his stronghold, Antioch. Unable to pay the heavy fees exacted by the Romans, he attempted to plunder a pagan temple.

Daniel Daniel Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle. Seleucus sent a Jew, Heliodorus, to plunder the temple at Jerusalem. Heliodorus went to the holy city but obtained nothing. Daniel Daniel 21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

Antiochus passed laws that forbade the practice of the Jewish religion, under penalty of death. He was a man of incredible cruelty.

A mother and her seven children were successively butchered, in the presence of the governor, for refusing to pay homage to an image. Daniel Daniel And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that makes desolate.

He then desecrated the temple by offering a sacrifice to the chief Greek god, Zeus.

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Daniel Daniel 32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. Mattathias was aided in his cause by five sons, most notably Judah or Judas, nicknamed Maqqaba Aramaic for hammer, whence derives the name Maccabees. This present section vv.